Can mental toughness change?

Crust (2008) observed that mental toughness in endurance walkers increased adaptability and flexibility in coping skills, including, maintaining objectivity, and providing perspective.

Mental toughness can be developed, both as a result of training and competition, environmental influences, and through social and personal support.  It has been recognised that challenging experiences may provide development opportunities for psychological qualities, such as mental toughness, including facilitated outdoor activities such as hiking and rock climbing, that may lead to an internalised locus of control, and feelings of success and accomplishment. 


Crust, L. (2008). A review and conceptual re-examination of mental toughness: Implications for future researchers. Personality and Individual Differences Personality and Individual Differences, 45

Hans, T. A. (2000). A meta-analysis of the effects of adventure programming on locus of control. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 30(1),33.

Sheard, M. (2013). Mental toughness: the mindset behind sporting achievement. London: Routledge.