What are the 4 c’s?

According to many researchers Mental Toughness is key to success in all sports.

Defined by Crust and Clough (2005) as

The 4 C’s, challenge, commitment, control and confidence. 

Mentally Tough individuals are said to: 

  • View negative experiences as challenges 
  • Be influential and control negative life experiences 
  • Be deeply involved and committed to achieving goals
  • Be confident in their ability to deal/overcome difficulties 

But what if this is not true of the ultra marathoner, what is it that makes them distinct? Motivation, tolerance of pain, or purely the physical results of slogging the miles out.